Accounting Concepts & Principles Definition & Introduction

Accounting Concepts & Principles Definition & Introduction

Definition and introduction

“Accounting is the language of business efficiently communicated by well-organised and honest professionals called accountants.”

Accounting not only records financial transactions and conveys the financial position of a business enterprise, it also analyses and reports the information in documents called “financial statements.”

Recording every financial transaction is important to a business organisation and its creditors and investors. Accounting uses a formalised and regulated system that follows standardised principles and procedures.

The job of accounting is done by professionals who have educational degrees acquired after years of study. While a small business may have an accountant or a bookkeeper to record money transactions, a large corporation has an accounts department, which supplies information to:

·      Managers who guide the company.

·        Investors who want to know how the business is doing.

·        Analysts and brokerage firms dealing with the company’s stock.

·        The government, which decides how much tax should be collected from the company.

Accounting Principles

Obviously, if each business organisation conveys its information in its own way, we will have a babel of unusable financial data.

Personal systems of accounting may have worked in the days when most companies were owned by sole proprietors or partners, but they do not anymore, in this era of joint stock companies. These companies have thousands of stakeholders who have invested millions, and they need a uniform, standardised system of accounting by which companies can be compared on the basis of their performance and value.

Therefore, accounting principles based on certain concepts, convention, and tradition have been evolved by accounting authorities and regulators and are followed internationally.

These principles, which serve as the rules for accounting for financial transactions and preparing financial statements, are known as the “Generally Accepted Accounting Principles,” or GAAP.

The application of the principles by accountants ensures that financial statements are both informative and reliable.

It ensures that common practices and conventions are followed, and that the common rules and procedures are complied with. This observance of accounting principles has helped developed a widely understood grammar and vocabulary for recording financial statements.

However, it should be said that just as there may be variations in the usage of a language by two people living in two continents, there may be minor differences in the application of accounting rules and procedures depending on the accountant.

For example, two accountants may choose two equally correct methods for recording a particular transaction based on their own professional judgement and knowledge.

Accounting principles are accepted as such if they are:

 (1) objective

 (2) usable in practical situations

(3) reliable

(4) feasible (they can be applied without incurring high costs)

(5) comprehensible to those with a basic knowledge of finance.

Accounting Concepts

1.     Business entity concept: A business and its owner should be treated separately as far as their financial transactions are concerned.

2.     Money measurement concept: Only business transactions that can be expressed in terms of money are recorded in accounting, though records of other types of transactions may be kept separately.

3.     Dual aspect concept: For every credit, a corresponding debit is made. The recording of a transaction is complete only with this dual aspect. 

4.     Going concern concept: In accounting, a business is expected to continue for a fairly long time and carry out its commitments and obligations. This assumes that the business will not be forced to stop functioning and liquidate its assets at “fire-sale” prices.

5.     Cost concept: The fixed assets of a business are recorded on the basis of their original cost in the first year of accounting. Subsequently, these assets are recorded minus depreciation. No rise or fall in market price is taken into account. The concept applies only to fixed assets.

6.     Accounting year concept: Each business chooses a specific time period to complete a cycle of the accounting process—for example, monthly, quarterly, or annually—as per a fiscal or a calendar year.

7.     Matching concept: This principle dictates that for every entry of revenue recorded in a given accounting period, an equal expense entry has to be recorded for correctly calculating profit or loss in a given period.

8.     Realisation concept:
According to this concept, profit is recognised only when it is earned. An advance or fee paid is not considered a profit until the goods or services have been delivered to the buyer.

For more information on this visit TAXAJ.

Posted By Twinkle

Team TaxaJ

    • Related Articles

    • Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)

      What Are Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)? Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) refer to a common set of accounting principles, standards, and procedures issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). Public ...
    • Accounting 3 Golden Rules

      Rules of Accounting Bookkeeping is only one aspect of financial accounting. Every transaction in accounting has two entries: debit and credit. It is critical to determine which accounts must be credited and which must be debited. This is the dual ...
    • Absorption Costing in Accounting Concepts

      Absorption Costing in Accounting Definition Absorption costing is a costing method that does not just account for the direct costs in the calculation of the cost of goods. In other words, the cost of each unit of a product with this method includes ...
    • What Is the Difference Between Bookkeeping and Accounting?

      What Is the Difference Between Bookkeeping and Accounting? Bookkeeping and accounting are two functions which are extremely   important for every business organization. In the simplest of terms, bookkeeping is responsible for the recording of ...
    • Capital Budgeting Concepts & Factors to Consider?

      Financial plans are guides that allow you to navigate the financial capabilities of an enterprise and choose effective actions. Budget planning of income and expenses, for instance, is needed to save money, to be efficient in financial management, to ...